Teaching English Methodologies

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- The Direct Method

- Grammar-translation

- Audio-lingual

- The structural approach

- Suggestopedia

- Total Physical Response (TPR)

- Communicative language teaching (CLT)

- The Silent Way

- Community Language Learning

- Immersion

- Task-based language learning

- The Natural Approach

- The Lexical Syllabus

 

The Direct Method: 

In this method the teaching is done entirely in the target language. The learner is not allowed to use his or her mother tongue. Grammar rules are avoided and there is emphasis on good pronunciation.

Used to / Would

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Used to and Would

- Used to, followed by the base form of the verb, is the expression used to talk actions or habits in the past.

Affirmative

Subject + used to + base form of the verb.

 

This form suggests that the habit or situation has changed in the present.

 

-         I used to swim when I was younger. (I do not swim anymore)

-         We used to live on a farm 15 years ago. Now, we live in the city.

 

The negative form receives “did not” or “didn’t”, which is followed by used to (not used to) and the base form of the verb that expresses the action.

Subject + didn’t use to + base form of the verb.

-         I didn’t use to attend evening classes at college.

-         He didn’t use to read books.

 

Interrogative 

Did + subject + use to + base form of the verb.

 

-         Did you use to play outside with your friends?

-         Did she use to watch soap operas?

Questions are formed using did, which is followed by the subject, use to (not used to) and the base form of the verb that expresses the action.

-         Did you use to play outside with your friends?

Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.

- Another way to talk about actions and habits in the past is by using the modal would. Using this form, we don’t specify whether the situation has changed or not in the present.

Subject + would + base form of the verb.

-         I would never make a decision.

-         They would do whatever they wanted.

 

Remember that a habit in the present is expressed using the present simple and a frequency adverb or expression of time, such as usually, every day, every week, etc.

 

 

Las estaciones del ano:

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Las estaciones del ano:

primavera

©iStockphoto.com/StanRohrer

En portugués y español, las estaciones se originan a partir del latín.

Al principio sólo había dos estaciones: veris, el buen tiempo, la temporada de floración y fructificación, con la temperatura y humedad moderada, y hiems, el mal tiempo, la lluvia y la estación fría.

Más tarde, comenzaron a dividirse en cinco: primavera, verano, otoño e invierno, un modelo que ha sido adoptado por España hasta el siglo XVI. Y desde el siglo XVII comenzaron a ser determinada por los dos equinoccios (primavera y otoño) y los dos solsticios (invierno y verano).

Hasta la fecha, el continente africano tiene sólo dos estaciones, la lluvia, calor y humedad, y la estación seca, seco y ligeramente más frías, especialmente por la noche.

 

Principales características de las diferentes estaciones del ano:

Primavera – el principio de este, los días y noches tienen la misma longitud. Y con el tiempo, los días son cada vez más grandes, por lo que, en la mayoría de los estados de Brasil, es el comienzo del horario de verano.

Verano – se caracteriza por días más largos que las noches. En muchas regiones del país, las temperaturas son gran cosa en este momento, y termina el horario de verano. Otoño – esta vez, días y noches son de igual longitud al comienzo y al final de los días son más cortos que las noches, la preparación para la llegada del invierno. Aquí caen las hojas y los frutos aparecen.

Invierno – caracterizada por días más bajos de la noche, y las bajas temperaturas.

 

Períodos del año en las estaciones del hemisferio sur en 2016:  

- Otoño: del 20 de marzo a la 20 de junio.

- Invierno: 20 de junio al 22 de septiembre.

- Primavera: del 22 de septiembre a la 21 de diciembre.

- Verano: Diciembre 21 de a la 20 de marzo.

The origin of Arbor Day

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J. Sterling Morton and his wife were lovers of nature. Morton was from Detroit and as soon as the couple established their home in Nebraska, they planted trees, shrubs and flowers in their new home.

Morton was a journalist and became editor of a Nebraska’s newspaper. Due to his forum, Morton spread agricultural information and his excitement for trees to an audience who was enthusiastic as well.

By the time Morton and his wife moved to Nebraska, the couple and his fellow pioneers missed their trees. Trees were needed as windbreaks to keep the soil in place, for fuel, building materials and for shade.

Morton encouraged civic organizations and groups to join in tree planting by individuals in his articles. He enhanced his power in the area and became secretary of Nebraska territory, which offered him another opportunity to stress the importance of trees.

On January 4th, 1872, Morton proposed a tree-planting holiday, which was named “Arbor Day” at a meeting of the State Board of Agriculture. The date was set for April 10, 1872. Prizes were offered to counties and individuals for planting the largest number of trees on that day. More than one million trees were planted in Nebraska on the first Arbor Day.

During the 1870s, other states passed legislation to observe Arbor Day, and the tradition began in schools in 1882.

Nowadays, the most common date for Arbor Day is the last Friday in April.

In Brazil, Arbor Day is on September 21st. It has the goal to understand the preservation and the importance of such a valuable symbol of nature. The date is different from other parts of the world and it was chosen in reason of the beginning of the spring, which begins on September 23 in Southern Hemisphere.

Fast Forest Facts

 

  • 13 million hectares of forest have been converted for other uses or destroyed by natural causes. While I’m writing this, almost 3 hectares have been cleared.
  • Up to 28,000 species can go extinct in the next quarter century due to deforestation.
  • By the year 2030, we might only have 10% of Rainforests left and it can all disappear in a hundred years.
  • 10% of the world’s forests are now protected areas. This is roughly the size of India.
  • Tropical Rainforests store more than 210 gigatons of carbon and deforestation is the cause of 15% of carbon emissions.
  • Cures for diseases have been found in plants and the raw materials come from our tropical rainforests.

(Fast Forest Facts: http://www.theworldcounts.com/stories/deforestation-facts-and-statistics – 19/09 / 7:00 a.m.) 20130825_110346

Idioms – Easy and Difficult

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Easy

To be a no-brainer Ser óbvio ou ser claro.
To be a walkover Ser moleza
To be a doddle Ser moleza ou ser um bico.
No sweet Sem problemas
To be plain sailing Ser tranquilo
(to be) a piece of cake Muito fácil
(to be) a piece of piss Ser moleza
Preaching to the converted Gastar saliva à toa.
Preaching to the choir Gastar saliva à toa.
There is nothing to it Não tem mistério, sem mistérios.

Difficult

An uphill struggle Muito difícil ou ter muita dificuldade.
Pissing in the wind Lutar contra o vento.
Like pushing shit uphill Ser uma *droga, vai ser uma …
Easier said than done É mais fácil falar do que fazer.
It is like pulling teeth É mais fácil extrair um dente.
It is like trying to get blood from a stone É como tentar tirar leite de pedra.

The History of the Paralympic Games

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    The concept for the Paralympic games was invented by Sir Ludwig Guttamann. He was a neurosurgeon who, in 1948, provided therapy for people in wheelchairs. Under his guidance, radical changes in the methods of treating people with spinal cord injuries were introduced. Ludwig recognized the value of recreation and sport as rehabilitation therapy and as a means to prevent injured ones being bored.

    Ludwig Guttman organized the first International Wheelchair Games to coincide the 1948 London Olympic Games. It was held at Stoke Mandeville Hospital in Aylesbury, England and, by that time, just a few athletes took part. The events intended to enhance people’s quality life with spinal cord injuries and was not a competition. In 1952, the games became the International Stoke Mandeville Games when a small team of Dutch war veterans travelled to England to compete against the British athletes.

    The first Paralympic Games were held in Rome with four hundred athletes from 23 countries taking part. The athletes competed in archery, basketball, fencing, javelin, shotput and swimming.

    The Paralympic games has experienced a huge growth and nowadays the Games is one of the largest events in the world.

JUEGOS PARALÍMPICOS

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paralimpico JUEGOS PARALÍMPICOS:

©iStockphoto.com/ArjyLondon

Inicialmente eran juegos destinados a los atletas jóvenes con discapacidad auditiva. En 1920 comenzaron a ser practicada por los discapacitados visuales. Y sólo después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial han sido adaptadas para personas con discapacidad como víctimas a la alternativa de tratamiento del trauma y la posterior mutilación de los conflictos.

Sin embargo, los juegos solamente se organizaron competiciones deportivas en 1944, cuando el neurólogo y neurocirujano alemán Ludwig Guttmann, después de escapar de la persecución nazi de los Judios, inaugurado en Stoke Mandeville, un centro que sirvió víctimas de traumatismos de la médula espinal o la amputación de las extremidades inferiores como resultado de la guerra, por invitación del gobierno británico, que proporciona oportunidades para que los pacientes practicar deportes dentro del hospital.

En 1948 se organizaron los primeros Juegos para atletas con discapacidad física, en la que no fue la participación de 16 atletas veteranos de guerra (14 hombres y 2 mujeres).
En 1952 los Juegos Mandeville fueron atendidos por 130 atletas de los Países Bajos , emergiendo como los Paralímpicos.

Oficialmente los primeros Juegos Olímpicos Especiales para atletas discapacitados se llevó a cabo en Roma en 1960 y contó con la participación de 240 atletas de 23 delegaciones que compiten en 8 deportes, y hay fundó la Federación Mundial de Veteranos. Poco después, en 1964 se creó la Organización Internacional de Deportes para Discapacitados (ISOD), y desde entonces, los Juegos Paralímpicos se celebran cada cuatro años  en el mismo lugar de los Juegos Olímpicos.

La primera participación de Brasil en las Olimpiadas Especiales fue en 1972.

Donde se han producido Paralímpicos:

-1960-Roma, Italia

-1964- Tokio, Japón

-1968-Tel Aviv, Israel

-1972 -Heidelberg, Alemania Occidental

-1976- Toronto, Canadá

-1980- Arnhem, Países Bajos

-1984-Stoke Mandeville, Reino Unido Nueva York, EE.UU.

-1988- Seúl, Corea del Sur

-1992- Barcelona, ​​España

-1996-Atlanta, Estados Unidos

-2000- Sydney, Australia

-2004- Atenas, Grecia

-2008- Beijing, China

-2012-Londres, Gran Bretaña

-2016-Río de Janeiro-Brasil

Actualmente los atletas compiten en pruebas categorías en función de su perfil funcional, en 19 deportes:

• Atletismo

• Silla de ruedas de baloncesto

• Bochas • Piragüismo en aguas tranquilas

• ciclismo de carretera

• Ciclismo de Pista

• Silla de ruedas Esgrima

• 5 de Fútbol • Fútbol 7

• Goalball

• Levantamiento de pesas

• Cabalgatas

• Judo • Natación

• Remo

• Silla de ruedas Rugby

• Tenis de mesa

• Silla de ruedas Pista

• Tiro con arco

• El disparo

• Triatlón

• Vela

• Voleibol Sentado

September 7th – Brazil’s Independence Day

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             Brazilian National Flag Waving in Blue Sky

©iStockphoto.com/VelhoJunior

The Brazilian Nation Day is also called “sete de setembro.” On September 7 1822, the declaration of independence from Portugal was made.

Pedro di Alcântara, better Known as Pedro I, made the declaration and became the first emperor of Brazil, ruling the nation from 1823 until 1831.

Brazil had been a Portuguese colony since the 16th century. In 1807, Portugal had been invaded by France and the Portuguese Royal family escaped to Brazil.  By that time, Brazil was given equal kingdom status with Portugal.

Brazil was officially free from the hands of the Portuguese with the declaration of its independence on September 7, 1822.  Finally, the country became a republic in 1889 and kept 7 September as its Independence Day.

 

A Little history before the Brazilian Independence

Dom João VI was the king in Portugal. He started ruling in 1792 due to his mother’s insanity. Dom João came to Brazil after he heard that Napoleon’s troops commanded by general Junot were heading to Portugal. By that time, Brazil was just a colony and after the royal family’s arrival, Brazil became its headquarter. Dom João stayed in Brazil between 1808 and 1821.

Dom João VI never ruled an independent Brazil, yet historians call him the “Founder of the Brazilian Nationality.” The Portuguese government was not so enthusiastic about Dom João’s plans to install and stay in a new kingdom in Brazil. It sent troops in 1820 to assist his return to Portugal. He returned to Portugal thus leaving his 23-year-old son Pedro in charge of Brazil.

On September 7, 1822, after receiving orders from the Portuguese parliament to curb his powers, on September 7, 1822, Pedro declared Brazil’s in São Paulo.

The King himself declared in the Grito do Ipiranga, “By my blood, by my honor, and by God: I will make Brazil free” with the motto “Independence or Death!”

Money Expressions

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Talking about Money – Saving Money

To look after the pennies and the pounds will look after themselves. Poupar hoje para ter amanhã.
To save (sth) for a rainy day. Nunca se sabe o dia de amanhã.
To squirrel (money or something) away. Guardar algum dinheiro embaixo do colchão.
Waste not, wont not. Quem guarda tem.

 

Spending Money

Money slips through one’s fingers. O dinheiro escapa entre os dedos.
No expense (was or has been/ will be) spare. Não importa o preço; não importam os gastos.
Retail therapy. Permitir-se um capricho.
To go on a spree. Esbaldar-se nas compras.
To spend like a sailor. Gastar feito louco.
To spend like there is no tomorrow. Gastar como se o mundo fosse acabar amanhã.
To have a hole in one’s pocket. Estar com o bolso furado.

 

Making Money

A cash cow. Vaca leiteira; galinha dos ovos de ouro.
A Money spinner. Uma mina de ouro.
To be on a gravy train. Ganhar uma grana preta.
To have money to burn. Nadar em dinheiro; ter muita grana.
Money is no object. Dinheiro não é o problema.
To have a windfall. Dinheiro cai do céu.
To kill the goose that lays Golden eggs. Matar a galinha dos ovos de ouro.
To make a fast buck. Ganhar dinheiro fácil.
To make a killing. Se encher de grana.
To rake it in. Fazer fortuna.
To make a living. Ganhar para viver.
To make good money. Ganhar um bom dinheiro.
Money for old rope. Dinheiro fácil.
A licence to print money. Uma mina de ouro.

 

 

Día Nacional do Folklore

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22 de agosto – Día Nacional de Folklore:

folclore

©iStockphoto.com/Ziviani

Folclore ( el saber popular =  personas + conocimiento) es decir , el saber popular

La palabra fue creada por William John Thoms, el 22 de agosto de 1846, a publicar el artículo Folklore ” en el Ateneo. Pero el interés en el tema surgió cuando los Hermanos Grimm y Herder investigado la cultura popular en Alemania, através de la música , los bailes populares y las prácticas religiosas.

En Brasil, la fecha en que se hizo oficial por el Congreso Nacional en 1965, después de los estudios y las representaciones literarias de Mario de Andrade, Cascudo y otros, el propósito de mejorar la cultura popular que surgió de la tradición oral y se transmite de generación en generación. Y se puede demostrar a través de leyendas, supersticiones, canciones, manualidades, supersticiones, mitos, fiestas, bailes, comidas y bebidas que representan las costumbres y la cultura nacional.

Las leyendas que representan campeones folclore brasileño son: Saci Pererê, Mula – sin cabeza, Curupira, hombre lobo, Boto y Boitatá. Pero últimamente leyendas urbanas: “El rubia del baño” y “La novia de la carretera”  también ha integrado la lista de las creencias populares.

Las fiestas populares que atraen y agradan a la gente son: Carnival, Cavalhadas, Congado, Festival divina, festivales de junio, Folia de Reis y Bumba – meu – boi.

Los principales bailes que representan el folclore nacional son: Samba de Roda, maracatu, frevo, Baião, Catira y Contradanza.

Folk comida típica de Brasil son:

Norte: Pato de tucupi; Sopa Turu; Farofa Turu; paiche guisado;  tostado suave de coco; Pescado asado; Beju; Tortuga con yuca; sopa de tortuga.

Noreste: Caruru; Sarapatéu; surubim moqueca; batapá; acarajé; Manguzá o mungunzá; Harina con caldo de azúcar morena; Bobó de camarón; paçoca; Baiao dos; Carne de sol.

Medio Oeste: galinhada; Arroz con piqui (o pequí); Sémola de maíz con queso; Pintado en braza; cocodrilo Farofa; lata de cerdo con yuca; Pescado asado; Passarinhada; tereré.

Sureste: lechones a pururuca; Frente al Sao Paulo; Tutu de frijol; sémola de maíz; feijoada; paçoca; habas drover; carreteiro arroz; Curau; Tamale (dulces y saladas); pollo completo; granos de grasa; palomitas de maíz.

Sur: Culhão cocinado toro; piñones tostados; Cordero en el agujero; Cerdo en el rodillo; Buey en el rodillo; La malla de costillas; barreado; barbacoa; Ánades reales con la naranja; Ánades reales con la manzana; Rodilla-cocida de cerdo; Pastel de manzana; carne seca con el ñame; pastel de piñón; Mate.

22 de agosto es una fecha que el Brasileño recuerdan sus raíces y su cultura, y que miles de turistas visitan el país para celebrar y celebrar la alegría que ya es parte de la cultura nacional.

 

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